Lecture 40

The word mathematical was used in 1941 by to describe the numerical modality– that’s not possible. Mathematics comes from a word meaning I come to know from experience. The Pythagoreans has said that the essential nature of all things id number and spatial figures. Everything is 7 , 11 or 4 or a triangle a sphere; the earliest Pythagoreans had not yet distinguished between number and spatial figures. Each number was a spatial figure. The nature of things was number and spatial figure, the word mathematics came to mean the knowledge of, the essence of things. Now we know there is arithmetic and geometry. So, mathematics can not be used to one of the modalities. Refers to both of them together.

Analytic – say one thing more and then more on to the others. We are trying to circumscribe a sense of the modal spheres – a sphere of distinct law functioning. From here on up they are norm laws; they require human objectivising – it is only grasped by humans giving positive form to it; eg the logical law, Greek thinkers began to realise that man could think logical, they had to put them in a law from then they could debate, the sesning of the law demand. These norms can be disobeyed, the lower ones cannot. Each sphere has a distinct kind of science.
Can’t be defined because they are ontic a prioris. There is nothing more ultimate under which they can be subsumed or defined, they can only be talk around. We distinguish a difference by way ofconcept formation. (Difference is ontic – it is there in the creation and we take note of difference and thus distinguish. Plants distinguish, animals distinguish but do it in a different way, the animal has a sensitive subject function; the plant doesn’t have one higher than the organic. A man distinguishes also by concept formation.)

What constitutes science? Discriminating systematically is the usual answer. Systematic discriminating belongs to a human being as an ontic a priori, we can do it without any scientific training. Science is generalisation – every baby generalises!

Concept formation is the forming of universals, and universals is generalisation. generalisation is the very essence of our logical functioning. It is a condition of experiencing everyday life.

Historial or the Technical: Why do I have these two words so close together? The whole trend of modern philosophy has to be to discuss knowing in terms of the scientific. Human knowing is so much more richer. God’s creation is revelational, man is made to hear and do the word of God; that involves knowing what is in the creation, grasping its sense.

It always involves three things: matter (in the sense of material), form and end (telos, the goal)
In all technics (be sure to distinguish between technics and technology; technology is the science of technics). Technics: a material which is formed to achieve a given end.

There is some material adding a form to the material to achive a desired end, that triad is always present in a technical process.

Why historial alongside technical? What is history? Is it a special science? Dooyeweerd say it is.

Old History been concerned with wars and political regimes and their successionetc, then new history in 20s and 30s, took abroad view of things, everyhting in a man’s life is history, sohistory can’t be a science it is an artful ways of describing all that’s happened to the human race– it describes all things in the human race. Dooyeweerd, says no, becauuse we aren’t interested in everything, except from a modally distinct way of viewing it.

Nineteenth century book by Thomas Carlye, Heroes and Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History,what makes a man a hero, a historical figure? Napoleon, Hitler and so on. Hitler, we know he grew up before WWI and was a soldier and was disappointed with the peace treaty. Thought he could reorganise Europe, it was an unorganised mess, the raw material for him to work upon; he had an idea of an end, the Third Reich. He couldn’t reach that end unless he could add form to Europe. Military power in Germany, until

A historical figure is one who finds a material that he can form to achieve an end. For Dooyeweerd, the adding of the form and achieving the end is what makes it an historical event. History as a special science should have an eye to this modal element.

The technical presupposes the analytical, unless form can be distinguished from matter. it involves analytical concept formation, which involves an element of the sensitive, without the sensitive we can’t form concepts. That why we have this ladder. We can’t have sense without the organ of the eye but seeing is not the eye.

Lingual or Symbolic: communication by means of conventional symbols.

One thing animal trainers are agreed upon: animals cannot read symbols. There is no recognition of symbols on the part of dolphins or chimpanzees.

Conventional symbols are ones agreed upon by society – the way we shake or nod our head. Can only be done by humans and it presupposes the historial because language requires human form giving. Linguistics distinguish primary and secondary language: spoken language is primary; written language is secondary.

Economic: Economic means the conservation of scarce goods.

Aesthetic: aesthetic means beautiful harmony. Nothing aesthetic is possible without the economic function of conservation.

Jural: don’t say juridical – it is a mistake, they don’t know any better or they haven’t thought! Juridical comes from Latin, the speaking of jus; it is a small subdivision of the jural!
There are two Latin words that have to be distinguished lex and jus. Lex is a positive law formulated by man, an actual law – the law of the land, statutory law. Legal positivists, the assertion that the study of law can only deal with statutory law – there is nothing behind it; others have said no, behind the legis is jus. Jus mean right, or law in the sense of that which is the norm, which our positivised laws ought to express. Natural law theorist s believe laws should be refashioned so it becomes closer to the law (jus); positivists say there is no jus except lex.

Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr, changed how Americans viewed the law – he went away from natural law theory and brought positivism to it.

Roscoe Pounds I took his class on Lucretius. He got legal positivists as judges. On his 80th birthday he said that he had been wrong and that the task of jurist was to look for an underlying sense of what is just.

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