Lecture 3

[The tape quality is very poor. Tape starts part way into the lecture]

Metaphysics – theories about being. The 2600 year-old Western tradition with many subdivisions. Each subdivision has many things in common. One common tradition is matter and mind.

As far as man is concerned he is a material body and a rational soul.

Dualism means that there are two different things.
What is matter? No mind.
What is mind? No matter.

Abortion – when does a foetus become a person? One answer is when the soul enters. It supposes that there is some entity called ‘soul’ and an entity called ‘body’.

Monism – there was originally one point of being – originally there was one being.

The world as we know it has come into being by a process of differentiation. Monism as far as the present world is no different to dualism. It is speculative.
Behind the world as we experience it there is a unitary one.

Dualism has an awfully long history. It goes back to ancient Persia and Zoroastrianism.

In ancient Greece there was the Orphic movement

By the end of the 1st and beginning of the 2nd century the Gnostic movement presented a great threat to the Christian church and much was written against this heresy.

In the 3rd and 4th centuries in ancient Rome Manicheism (Mani)– this was popular in the Roman army and spread rapidly.

4th century Carthi – comes from the Greek meaning ‘pure ones’.

God and creation is not a dualism. Dualism is the view that creation is made up of two unlike principles. It rejects the unity of creation. Good and evil are equal.

Dualism never refers to creator and created.

The cosmos is made up of two things. Dualism is a philosophical view of cosmos.

9th century In the east (what is now Bulgaria) Bogomils – literally ‘God lovers’. (Bog is Russian for God.)

Late Middle Ages the followers of Peter Waldo known as the Waldensians.

At times of the Protestant reformation Calvin had influence in Eastern Europe and Italy for a time – a number of Waldenisans joined the Reformed churches and dualism entered again the Reformed churches.

Task: Look up information about Zoroastrianism, Gnostics, Mani, Bogomils, Cathari and Waldensians.

Ought to get a one-volume dictionary of philosophy an keep it in front of you as you work; eg [Dagobert D. ]Runes Dictionary of Philosophy.

Aspects of the philosophical tradition

Metaphysicsontology: Ont = be-ing.

Epistemology: episteme = knowledge

Axiology: axios = worthy of worth; theory about value(s)
Axiology is a very recent discipline in philosophy – it became a separate discipline in the twentieth century. Al Wolters connects it to the neo-Kantians; it became a separate discipline because of the neo-Kantian point of view.

Kant d 1804 – there are some dates you have to memorise.

The mind and matter attitude meant that there was matter – the ‘physical universe’, a world of observable facts – and mind – not a world of facts, values have to be put on the facts. This means that the whole ‘physical universe’ is value-less. Mind adds them to a world that doesn’t have them.

My viewing these physical facts of the so-called external world, in my mind, somethings are more important than others. My mind reads these values onto a world that has no values

Think about what that says about God’s creation. Causal determinism ruled out miracles – there is no room for miracles, a miracle would break the chain of causal determinism.

1. There is no such separate physical world – it is not merely a physical world.
2. The creation and the physical world are not the same. if there were it wouldn’t be without meaning or value.
3. What is this talk about value(s)?
• are there different dimensions of values? ecomomic values, aesthetic values, legal values etc?
• is value just value?
• is there one basic value? Or different ways of looking at value?

What is this value? norms of behaviour, oughts, how we ought to act legally, ethically etc.

The law of God for our behaviour – they are making the mind the origin of values. The human mind out of its elf reds values on to the world.

Autonomous = self law; himself the law, the law is him.

Axiology – the neo-Kantians accepted the ‘physical universe’, but wanted to hold onto values.

What is meant by this value?
Are there norms that we must obey?

Rom 2: 14-15.

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